A resident of the netherlands voluntarily injected a bitcoin wallet into himself
One is a mature-stage transition. I hope I can be forgiven for leaving the necessary, important task of raising objections about the value and prospects of platform cooperativism to others. Ownership designs In the following I introduce some of the design patterns Alexander et al.
Online platforms have yet to enjoy the value and benefits of this model. Perhaps platform co-ops, by building other co-ops into their supply chains, can help set high standards for sourcing and labor. Platform cooperativism can likewise be taken to mean a broad invitation to a fairer online economy through shared ownership and governance; platform co-ops, however, are strictly those platforms that are also bona-fide co-ops by widely agreed-on standards Sutton et al. The technological sophistication necessary to build online enterprises has also proved prohibitive for the often-marginalized communities that tend to adopt cooperative strategies.
In order to protect the code-sharing habits of early hacker culture from the proprietary urges of corporations and universities, Richard Stallman inaugurated the Free Software movement with the GNU Public License in I draw from published material on their websites and my conversations with their participants. The tradition of hacking intellectual-property law, however, has not extended to the challenge of hacking corporate structure and corporate profits; as a result, there has been a disconnect between production, governance and ownership. Some insist that platform cooperativism should include a commitment to the exclusive use and production of the GPL and similar licenses. Even without adopting additional restrictions, platform co-ops have sought to develop new strategies for connecting the immense value in the open-software commons with end-users.
Conversions, too, can come in various forms. For some years now, federated social networks like Diaspora, Friendica and GNU Social have implemented features familiar to users of Facebook and Twitter through decentralized networks of independently owned and governed nodes. What ownership structures are appropriate, competitive and just for an economy orchestrated through platforms? The economic power and promise of large pools of human data depend on the relinquishment of certain ownership rights by the humans involved, such as through opaque service agreements. The FairShares model, for instance, is a recent effort to facilitate and codify a multi-stakeholder structure.
A further source for platform co-op investment is the existing offline cooperative sector. Cooperative models are both proven and adaptive enough to merit consideration as we design and adopt — so far with too little foresight — the platform utilities of the twenty-first-century economy. Ownership transitions What would it take to have an economy in which a can-do entrepreneur with an idea for a platform — the kind of person who wants nothing more than to create something new and excellent and receive some fair compensation for succeeding — will conclude that her best way to proceed is by practicing democracy? FairCoop is attempting to create a global cooperative financial system with several concurrent mechanisms, including its own cryptocurrency, a mutual-credit network, a savings a resident of the netherlands voluntarily injected a bitcoin wallet into himself and a variety of mission-driven funds.
Another kind of conversion — more speculative a resident of the netherlands voluntarily injected a bitcoin wallet into himself challenging, to be sure — could take place once a platform has achieved the sort of ubiquity that makes it, in essence, a monopoly-utility. In Barcelona and the surrounding region, the Catalan Integral Cooperative draws member-owners in first by facilitating freelance work, and then by enabling them to obtain food, housing and services through internal trade and mutual credit rather than relying on euros. The accomplishments of this movement have been remarkable; copyleft practices have insinuated themselves into the modus operandi of the mainstream tech industry, creating many billions of dollars worth of freely available, world-class software in the process. Ownership design is best considered a process of open-ended choices, based on patterns that we test and apply iteratively. Platform cooperativism inclines toward another approach, one in which the people contributing value co-own the platforms and help decide to what ends they operate.
A vibrant platform co-op sector will require a variety of financing mechanisms. Technologies like peer-to-peer file sharing have allowed users — by relying on no central server — to share copyrighted music and video files without interference from the copyright holders. Platforms increasingly act as infrastructure, enabling productive activity among users — from individuals to large organizations.
Open Collective, while not a cooperative, is a crowdfunding tool that enables groups to form online cooperatives and manage their budgets without need for formal incorporation or a bank account. But when platforms hold near-monopoly status and wield control over urban transportation networks or data about intimate relationships, their risk profile is more complex than a share price. The Internet of Ownership maintains a library of legal templates and bylaws.
One promising approach may be to forge collaborations between successful tech accelerators and cooperative financial institutions. Since earlyalong with Devin Balkind of Sarapis and others, I have maintained The Internet of Ownership 6the most exhaustive directory to date of the platform co-op ecosystem, and I lean heavily on that experience here. By orienting their business models around such contributors, platforms can provide not only decent livelihoods, but also a means a resident of the netherlands voluntarily injected a bitcoin wallet into himself bypassing dependency on employment relations altogether. The urge to decentralize and distribute authority across networks risks neglecting the necessary work of reconstituting that authority in democratic ways. Platform cooperativism has challenged both versions of superficial communalism by seeking to align appropriate ownership and governance structures rather than hiding one behind the other.